Book, monograph

A book citation, namely a monograph (a non-serial publication), should contain information on the author, title and publishing. Use italics for the book title. Note that you should use the information given on the title page, not the information on the book-cover.

If the book is published as part of a series, also add the name of the series and which number in the series the publication has.

Reference list

Author, Initial (Year). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Huang, Kun (2919). Implied volatility and option pricing models. Diss. Helsinki: Hanken School of Economics. (Economics and Society, 326). Available from: Accessed 4 July 2019.

Sikarskie, A. G. (2021). Storytelling in luxury fashion: Brands, visual cultures, and technologies. New York, NY: Routledge.

In-text citation

(Sikarksie 2021 p. 57)

 (Huang 2019, p. 45)


Book, second or later editions

If the book is a 2nd or later edition, always add this information to the reference list.

Author, Initial (Year). Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Berk, J. & DeMarzo, P. M. (2014). Corporate finance. 3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson.


E-books are often identical to the printed version, therefore the reference to an e-book is identical to the reference to a printed book. It is still recommended that information is added to the reference to facilitate the identification of the e-version.

If the book is published as open access, add the URL and date you accessed the book. This is usually the case with different types of reports, theses and publications by authorities and other organizations.

If you are citing an e-book in a database or e-book platform, you can add the name of the database or platform. In this instance the URL is not added to the reference. The date for accessing the book must be added. This is especially important when you are citing works that are continuously updated.

Reference list

Author, Initial (Year). Title. Place of publication: Publisher. Available: URL. Accessed date.

Wang, J. (2008). Brand new China: advertising, media and commercial culture. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Available from: Ebook Central. Accessed 11 March 2010.

Carroll, J. & Zetterling, C-M. (2009). Guiding students away from plagiarism. Stockholm: KTH Learning Lab. Available from: accessed 9 June 2021.

In-text citation

According to Wang (2008, p. 25) …