Several authors

Two or three authors

When citing a publication with two or three authors, all authors should be included in the in-text citation. If the author’s names are mentioned in the text outside the brackets, use “and” between the surnames. If the surnames are inside the brackets “&” is used.

In the reference list all authors are mentioned, and in the same order as in the publication.

In-text citation

In Academic writing for graduate students Swales and Feak (2012) explains how to …

Power has shifted from individuals to groups (Kotler, Kartajaya & Setiawan 20217, p. 6).

Reference list

 Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. (2012). Academic writing for graduate students: essential tasks and skills. 3rd ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H. & Setiawan, I. (2017). Marketing 4.0: moving from traditional to digital. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.


Four or more authors

When a publication has four or more authors, all authors are mentioned the first time you cite the publication. Later citations should consist of only the first author followed by et al. (=and others in Latin).

In the reference list all authors are mentioned in the same order as in the publication.

In-text citation

When measuring development… (Laakso, Welling, Bukova, Nyman, Björk & Hedlund 2011).

Laakso et al. (2011) claims that …


Reference list

 Laakso, M., Welling, P., Bukova, H., Nyman, L., Björk, B.-C., & Hedlund, T. (2011). The development of open access journal publishing from 1993 to 2009. PLoS ONE, 6(6), e20961. Available from: Accessed 29.04.2021.