Guidelines for the reference list

In the reference list the reader will find more information about the sources you have used. The main entries in the in-text citations should correspond with the first word in the reference list, so that the reader can find and identify the source. The reference list is placed at the end of your text. Appendices are placed before the list.

All sources you site with in-text citations should also be found in the reference list.

The reference list is alphabetical. Format your list of references making it clear and readable. Adding an empty line between the different sources or using hanging indent makes it easier for the reader to distinguish the different sources from each other.

Printed and electronic sources are listed together in one single list of references. Oral sources are listed separately. Unpublished sources, such as letters, manuscripts etc should also be listed separately. If you use several legal sources, list them separately.

This information should be included in the reference list:

  • Author or editor. If author or editor is missing, the publishing organization or the title of the works is the main entry.
  • Year of publication (not always the same as printing year).
  • Complete title, that is both the title and subtitle.
  • Edition, when you use the second or later editions.
  • Publication series and serial number if these are vital for identifying the source.
  • Place of publication (not place of printing)
  • Publisher or other publishing organization.

For a journal article add:

  • Author
  • Year of publication
  • Complete article title (including title and subtitle
  • Name of journal
  • Year/volume, issue
  • Pages (first and last page of the article)

For online material:

  • Available from: URL (Note that the URL should not be underlined in the reference list.
  • Accessed: date when the information has been used