When you quote something you copy someone else’s text word-for-word. Short quotes melts into the text while long quotes start on a new row and with an indent. The in-text citation is placed in connection with the quote. When quoting the in-text citation should always have a page number (if the source is paginated). Note that tables, figures and pictures from other sources should be treated as quotes and should also have a citation with author, publication year and page included. The same rules apply for digital material.

Paraphrasing is always preferred to quoting in academic writing. Quote only if it’s absolutely essential for your text, and avoid longer quotes. Paraphrasing also enables you to fit the material to the context of your paper and make it more appropriate for your writing style.

Short quotes

A short quote consists of two sentences at the most, or part of a sentence and is melted into the text. Always use quotation marks at the start and the end of the text.

In order to understand the literature you need to know how to “apply theories and abstract concepts to the practical problem assumed in assignments” (Shone 2018 p.53).

Longer quotes

Avoid taking an entire paragraph from the same reference, but if you do need to quote a longer text, more than 40 words or three sentences, it is recommended that you use block quotation. Start the quote indented on a new row and use single line spacing. Add quotation marks.

Changing or translating a quote

Don’t change the original text when quoting, however you can omit a section of the text inside a quote. The omitted words are replaced by three dots in square brackets […]. If you want to underline or italicize something in the quote, add e.g. [own italics] after the quote.

If you translate a quote from another language, it should be apparent that the quote is a translation, e.g. by adding [own translation] after the quote. The in-text citation is placed in connection with the quote.